عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the fundamental characteristics of Achaemenid art is its combinatorial nature. Depiction of the levee in this period is a clear manifestation of this important feature. Since the use of visual media in the ancient world was limited, rock relief and wall paintings have been useful and efficient tools for showing the political power of the state. One of these scenes is the levee ceremony, during which the king let his subjects or their representatives come to the court in order to listen to their problems, issues, and political-economic conditions. The levee was also held when the king was given tributes by conquered states or decided to offer gifts. The rock reliefs depicting levee belonging to the Achaemenid Empire, especially in Persepolis, reflect these features very clearly.The authors of this paper believe that the artistic influences of Neo-Assyrians and Neo-Elamites on the Achaemenids are evident, especially in the representation of levee in Achaemenid architecture. This impact is particularly obvious in the hybrid animal motifs, such as Shirdal (Griffin), winged cows with human heads (lamassu), clothes, weapons, utensils, depiction of battle scenes (e.g., the battle of the royal hero with real and hybrid animals), porters, and fortification and treasury tablets. Therefore, the present research intends to compare the Achaemenid art with those of the Neo-Assyria and Neo-Elam. Regarding the temporal and spatial correspondence of Achaemenid with these two empires, the scene of levee depicted in Persepolis was compared with those of Neo-Elamite Kidin Hutran Bronze Cup and Neo-Assyrian paintings of Til Barsip. The aim was to identify the similarities and differences of these three civilizations and determine the extent to which the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Elamite civilizations influenced the depiction of the levee in Apadana of Persepolis.The present research aims to answer questions, such as what are the similarities and differences of the Achaemenid levee depicted in Persepolis and those depicted in Neo-Elmite Kidin Hutran Bronze Cup as well as Neo-Assyrian paintings of Til Barsip, and whether the royal levee scenes of Persepolis aimed to further political purposes and express the political power of the Achaemenids. In line with this study, Stronach in "Icons of Dominion: Review Scenes at Til Barsip and Persepolis" (Stronach, 2002) compared the scenes represented in Til Barsip and Persepolis. Moreover, he determined the legitimacy and power of the Assyrian and Achaemenid kings based on these scenes.