عنوان مقاله [English]
There were numerous myths about animals in the ancient world and mythology, many of which were considered sacred creatures. The gods were sometimes portrayed as hybrid and strange animals to make the ancient human beings have a better understanding of their grandeur and holiness. Among the most important elements in the ancient world and mythology were the imaginary and mythical creatures that were created from the combination of two or more important creatures and were considered to be extraordinarily powerful. These imaginary beings reflected the beliefs of the artists that created them. Moreover, most of the Mesopotamia gods had an animalistic form so that they had a human’s face and an animal’s body or vice versa. Lamassu was one of the hybrid gods in the Assyrian civilization which was often considered to provide protection from evil and guard the palace.
The tradition of using this huge hybrid creature influenced the Achaemenid as well. The present study hypothesized that the traditions, rituals, worship of gods, and cultural and religious themes have a profound effect on the development of art in various civilizations. Therefore, the art of different civilizations cannot be considered the same due to their influences on each other. The present study aimed to compare two Assyrian and Achaemenid lamassu sculptures to show the development and perfection of the visual elements in the sculpture belonging to the Achaemenid art to raise awareness about the intellectual and cultural system of civilizations. In this regard, Abolghasem Dadvar and Roya Roozbehani (2016) in their study thoroughly introduced and described the hybrid animals and their classification and also compared the Achaemenid and Assyrian relief.Fariba Foruzanfar (2013) in her article titled "Investigation on the Sculptures of Lamassu in Persepolis and Khorsabad Palace" mentions the similarities and differences of the meaning of the mythical sculptures of lamassu in Persepolis and Khorsabad palace. However, the aforementioned article lacks adequate figures and comparison tables. The distinctive feature of the present study was its emphasis on the differences and similarities of the sculptures of lamassu in all of the cases that could be found in "Nineveh", "Khorsabad", and "Nimrud". Furthermore, this study presented the subject differently way by focusing on the sculpture and comparing its significance in the myths of two civilizations by drawing a comparison table.